1. Heartwater (Rickettsiosis/hartwater)
Cowdria ruminantium (Rickettsia)
Loss of appetite, listlessness and rapid breathing.
Followed by muscular tremors, circular movements, and grinding of the teeth.
Recovering animals show diarrhoea.
Immune animals show a slight fever.
Treatment should occur as early as possible (preferably before the nervous symptoms occur).
Oxytetracycline (Liquamycin L A). (Swamicin/Terramycin)
Vaccination after 2 weeks of age may cause severe disease reaction, therefore end treatment on day 8 or 9 with long-acting tetracycline in a lower dose than prescribed.
Eliminate transmission by dipping.
Do not import animals from a heartwater-free area into a heartwater area without vaccination.
2. Blue udder (Blue bag)
Staphylococcus areus or Pasteurella haemolytica (bacterium)
Occur in female goats soon after kidding or even before.
Udder becomes infected, swollen and painful, later it turns purple to blue.
Loss of appetite and fever, milk is abnormal and may cause death of kid(s).
Toxins produced by the bacteria cause general disease signs and eventually death.
Difficult and costly to treat.
Penicillin or oxytetracycline.
Vaccination, animals that have not been vaccinated before are given two vaccinations, 6–8 weeks and 2–4 weeks before kidding. Repeat annually.
Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida (bacterium)
Acute death of animals.
Fever, lack of appetite, rapid breathing.
Coughing, loss of condition, difficult breathing, discharge from nose and eyes.
Animals lie down with neck stretched out.
Inject with sulpha or oxytetracycline (Sulphatrim or Liquamycin L A).
Vaccinate all animals according to the vaccination programme. The vaccine does not give complete protection; therefore, cases of Pasteurella can still occur.
Kids are vaccinated 2 times with an interval of 4–6 weeks, with an oil vaccine.
Adults are vaccinated annually with an alum vaccine.
This disease is stress-related. Make sure animals are protected against possible stress: weather, weaning, scarcity of feed, etc.
Clostridium botulinum (bacterium)
Stiffness of the limbs (noticed in leg and neck muscles).
Followed by partial or complete paralysis of all muscles.
Tongue may protrude.
In less acute cases, animals have difficulty feeding and drinking.
Vaccination (especially if animals are fed with chicken litter), twice at about weaning age, repeat annually.
Destroy all carcasses.
Bacteria form spores which occur in the soil. Make sure animals do not suffer from mineral deficiency and show signs of pica.
5. (Pulpy kidney/bloednier)
Clostridium perfringens, also known as Clostridium welchii type D (bacterium)
Acute death of animals.
Laboured breathing, salivation, diarrhoea.
Twitching muscles, rolling eyes, grinding of teeth.
Many animals in one herd (herd problem).
Unsuccessful, because the disease is noticed too late.
Vaccinate all animals according to the vaccination programme.
Kids are vaccinated 2 times with an interval of 4–6 weeks.
Adults are vaccinated annually.
Do not make sudden changes in diet, grazing or deworming.
Vaccinate at least 3 weeks before deworming.
In a severe outbreak you may consider treating all animals once with a long-acting tetracycline.
-Compiled from various sources by Charles Tjatindi