• December 15th, 2019

Thought Leaders

Opinion: Respect and care for the ecosystem

One of the core facets of our constitution can be surmised as “Everyone has the right (a) to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being, and (b) to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations through reasonable legislative and other measures.”

Opinion: Zambezi’s Developmental Ills

In a fully-packed stadium of Katima Mulilo in Zambezi region over the weekend of 15 November 2019, President Hage Geingob told the frenzied politically stereotyped crowd that the underdevelopment experienced in the Region was caused by Mishake Muyongo when he fled the region in 1998. As usual, without any analysis of the head of state’s words, the crowd went wild, jeering and cheering, baying for the self-imposed refugee’s blood.

Opinion: Are you being served?

From 1972 to 1985, television viewers enjoyed over sixty episodes of the hilarious situational comedy, Are You Being Served? It made fun of the misadventures of the staff of a retail floor of a major British department store.

Opinion: The benefits and joys of studying literature

At one workshop for English teachers, there was at first strong resistance from most participants when it was suggested that literature in English should be made a compulsory subject in all schools in Namibia as one of the ways of improving the English language proficiency of not only learners, but also the teachers themselves.

Opinion: Is it a fear of criticism, of failure, or both?

While negative thoughts are a natural (and irritating) occurrence, psychologist Lisa Firestone says we need to handle them with care: they can easily lead to debilitating distress. In particular, she warns against self-hatred or self-doubt. In their place, Firestone suggests a COAL attitude which translates to “curious, open, accepting and loving.”  

Opinion: NCRST journal breathes new life in scholarly communication in Namibia

Three years ago, when the National Commission on Research Science and Technology (NCRST) mooted the idea of a multidisciplinary academic journal, some critics never thought that such a proposal would yield any meaningful results. Others said it was a far-fetched idea which would fizzle or evaporate into thin air. But dedicated scholars from NCRST, the University of Namibia (Unam), the mother university, the Namibia University of Science and Technology (Nust) and the International University of Management (IUM), believed in the idea of the journal and took upon themselves the mammoth task of setting up structures, rules and regulations that have culminated in the first edition of the Namibia Journal for Research, Science and Technology that was launched last week in Windhoek.

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ECN position represents legal positivism in practice

The Electoral Commission of Namibia as a custodian of election related matter in our Republic has taken a bold stand to enforce strict compliance of political parties to both statutory and constitutional provisions that require aspiring parliamentarians first to resign from their remunerated public office positions before accepting nominations as candidates of their respective parties.

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Let’s not stoke the fires we cannot extinguish

Permit me to contribute to the shaping of this discussion on social cohesion in Namibia, a motion tabled by the Chief Whip of Swapo Party, Hon. Cde Taeyele. The motion asks if we are still united under the slogan, One Namibia, One Nation. I want to start my contribution with an affirmation of the unity that has made Namibia the nation that she is today.

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Town hall meetings and accountability of political leaders

Accountability is a rare commodity in politics yet it is one of the cornerstones of good governance. President Hage Geingob has been criticised, perhaps harshly, in recent days about his current series of town hall meetings across the regions, because they are supposedly a plot to garner political ground ahead of this year’s general election.

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U.S. Policy on Venezuela

The people of Venezuela are suffering from interlocking man-made political and economic crises that have transformed a once thriving and prosperous democracy into a country overridden by poverty, corruption, and repression.  

Is the immunity of the innocent being respected?

Ancient and modern history is replete with examples where peaceful diplomacy failed to end conflicts between nations. On many occasions, affected nations have thrown away what is called “hypocritical humility” and opted for deterrence theory.    My definition of deterrence theory is limited, for this column, to the belief that it is better to prevent than to engage in war. 

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Implementing language policies in Southern Africa: A daunting task (Part 1)

The local press was recently awash with the news that the Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture in Namibia wants to introduce a new language policy in schools. If legislators approve this language policy, it will compel primary schools to use the mother language as a medium of instruction from Grade 1 to Grade 3.  Although this is a commendable move, but is not without challenges. 

Mvula ya Nangolo: Tribute of a grieving son

Life is the process of self-sustaining and self-generating action. Life requires action, and action requires values.  And it is these values that define a man, Man's Life is his moral standard, Baba, Tatekulu Mvula Ya Nangolo, Was a man with values and a man with a moral standard.

The politics of us and them

It is unquestionable that we live in a time where we have unprecedented access to information. This reality brings with it the fact that we as citizens are caught up in a web of information and disinformation. Unfortunately, not all of us are always good at distinguishing between facts and “political spin”. 

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Female technocrats: Rise or extinction?

This week’s suspension of Namibia Wildlife Resorts NWR)’ managing director Zelna Hengari has once more resuscitated the intense debate on whether women within SOEs and the public sector at large are punished harsher than their male counterparts - even if the offences are of the same nature.

A night in Aus

The reason for me to spend the night of the 13th April 2019 in Aus was for this year’s constituency independence celebrations. The place Aus is rich in history and started with Khoisan using the fountains in the area.

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Trailing the chopsticks

Ni Hao! The Island Province of Hainan with its beautiful beach city of Sanya, was warm, a reality far from the weather in Beijing. It felt like home, Swakopmund to be precise, just slightly more humid. 

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Cyclone Idai: Malawi, Zimbabwe and Mozambique need us

Yesterday I was greatly honoured to welcome stakeholders who showed up at the official launch of the Sadc Regional Appeal for Humanitarian Assistance in response to Tropical Cyclone Idai that unfortunately heavily affected, last month, three of Sadc member states, namely; the republics of Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. 

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Genocide: Real, robust and honest conversations overdue

On the sidelines of a conference titled Colonial Repercussions: Reflecting on the Genocide of the Ovaherero and Nama Peoples 115 Years Later, held in Windhoek last week at the Goethe Institut Namibia, US- based Jephta Nguherimo, a co-founder of the Institute of the Nama, Ovaherero, Ovambanderu and Nama Genocide (ONGI) in the USA, interestingly observed that these days, if ever, Namibians more often talk about rain than they do about genocide and reparations. 

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Graduation, the end crowns the work

Graduation time is a special time that signifies that students have achieved their qualifications, and that they deserve to celebrate with their parents, guardians, friends and classmates. It is a time at the end of degree programmes that crowns the work or qualification.

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The media cannot be a tool of regurgitation

On Tuesday of this week the Electoral Commission of Namibia (ECN) had consultations with political parties and whoever else regarding the vexed issue of having paper trail when using the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) of which Namibia is a pioneer in their use in the Southern African Development Community (Sadc).

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Decolonisation of tertiary education a must

Scholars in decoloniality are spreading the good gospel according to the total decolonisation of tertiary education and advocating for an era in which African universities will use curricula that are free from the vices or evils of colonialism, apartheid and imperialism. 

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Nujoma, Kozonguizi dichotomy: A critical review

Jariretundu Kozonguivi, an intellectual militant internationalist was a brainchild of the African National Congress in Eastern Cape while at Fort Hare University, while Sam Nujoma is a crude breed of the railway contract labour system that forced him to adopt African nationalism to fight for their rights. 

A perspective on leadership

I have a longstanding passion for motivational or inspirational material. Quick research shows that I am not alone. An actress once compared the inspirational or encouraging words to the daily intake of vitamins. At its most effective delivery, motivation may very well be the crutch that moves one from stasis to breakthrough. 

The plight of Namibia’s children in rural schools

Goran Hyden is right when he says, “Turing the despair and pessimism that affects large sectors of the African people into hope and optimism will require from the planners of African development to re-inspect the premises upon which they have based their planning to date. No one escapes this challenge: there are no short cuts to progress.”

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Parliament not as old as often claimed

An article titled ‘A parliament of the elderly’ that appeared in The Patriot newspaper of 8 March 2019 is, to all intends and purposes, fake news that seeks to distort gains made by the ruling party Swapo in being an all inclusive party represented in parliament by a diverse set of individuals of a different range of age groups. 

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The fallacy of independent candidacy of a Swapo member

We live in interesting times where members of our society have awoken from slumber to learn what they should have known from the dawn of independence in 1990 that every Namibian is guaranteed certain rights in the national constitution, including the right to participate in presidential elections as an independent candidate. 

Jan's Corner: Authorised Ministry

Following the readings, the Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN), is advocating for the regulation of churches by limiting the establishment of churches to those who meet basic criteria, including basic theological training of religious leaders.

The challenges of the spoken word

My young brother and I took a bus trip to Victoria Falls in early January. We used the promises of reliability, comfort and safety to choose our mode of travel. However, seemingly endless and unscheduled stops spoilt the flavour of the journey.

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The battle for Venezuela (Part I)

Venezuela has been in the headlines for several weeks and most of the western and global mass media paint a picture of a dictatorial government oppressing its people.  Outside interventions, including economic and financial sanctions and th

Saga and the achievements of an academic institution

World-class universities such as the University of Oxford, University of Harvard, Cambridge University, University of Melbourne, University of Cape Town, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, have extraordinary institutional sagas that have shaped their trajectories of academic excellence over the years.

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Whose degree is it anyway, students?

University students, I have deliberately chosen to address the contentious issue of academic dishonesty and cheating at the beginning of your first semester so that you can be warned of the consequences of academic fraud before it is too late. 

Jan's corner: “The elephant”

Have you heard about the elephant in the room? It is the conversation about the controversial subject that no one wants to have because everyone fears conflict will break out, feelings will be hurt, and then no one will be talking. 

Life in the inbox: Weekly Take-Away

Retiring is a difficult job to do (I can confirm that). It becomes especially so when one does not have anyone to share work memories with. As a result, I find myself feeding from my inboxes. It is a daily binge. I try however to stay clear of negative conversations while participating in and following those which give value to relationships. 

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Approaching homosexuality mindfully in education

Navigating the murky waters of sexual orientation in a world where universal human rights and the right of an individual to practice any profession of their choosing presents an emotional minefield where homophobia, the right of a child to safety and the duties of parents to safeguard their children from harm cross at an intersection of rights, customs, the needs of the community, national and international education policy and the law as established by the Constitution of Namibia.

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Let’s not politicise free education

Between 27th June and 1st July 2011 a national consensus building exercise period aiming at the renewal of commitment to education for every sector in Namibia took place. This was done under the theme: “Collective delivery on education promise: Improving the education system for quality learning outcomes and quality of life”.  It was attended by more than one thousand participants across all sectors, regions and socia

Word and action

The most important issue in a mission is this element of word and action. There are those who think that a mission is primarily about talking but if we take a look at the biblical tradition, we will see that the sharp distinction which we are inclined to draw between word and action is not in fact there anymore.

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Sadc’s dexterity cements democracy in the DRC

Divergent to reports that Sadc has been dilly-dallying with indecisiveness on the outcome of the recently concluded elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), or as some critics claimed, has supposedly betrayed genuine democracy for political friendship with President Joseph Kabila, the regional body led by its venerable Chairperson, President Dr. Hage G. Geingob, has as per the accepted international norms, taken a farsighted decisive position in the best interest of lasting peace, stability and democracy for the people of the DRC.

Much clarity needed on genocide road shows

Lately a section of the Ovambanderu, Ovaherero and Nama who are associated, or are close to, and in the centre or even on the periphery of the ongoing reparations negotiations between the government of the Republic of  Namibia and the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, are and have been  on road shows countrywide. 

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Political opportunism aimed at disturbing society

All forward-looking and visionary societies adhere to progressive norms, rules and values that guide, instruct and direct such societies for their own good. It is for this reason that we have what is called the rule of law, where laws are written and enacted to ensure that the society which makes up a nation dynamically advances in an orderly way.

Socialism with a Namibian flavour

The end of 2018 was a time to be remembered. I do not remember any other time towards the end of the year during the 28 years of our independence where we had lively debates like what happened during the SWAPO extraordinary congress.

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Getting to know the Abidjan Convention

Marine and coastal areas of the Atlantic Coast in West, Central and Southern Africa contribute hugely to economic development of countries which shares this ocean, through activities such as fishing, maritime transportation, oil and gas exploration and tourism.

Hygiene: Katutura in trouble

When the South African regime in the mid to late fifties decided to move blacks from the then “Old Location” to Katutura, the move sparked discontent and led to the shootings in the area and summary relocation of all the black residents under duress. 

Going fast or going far?

A popular African proverb says: “If you want to go fast, go alone. But if you want to go far, go together.” The proverb could describe the dynamics South Africa will encounter on the United Nations Security Council in the next two years.

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General Namoloh may be right in Mbulunganga tribute

The memorial service and State funeral of former Plan commander Matias ‘Mbulunganga’ Ndakolo on 7 December unearthed the deep-seated wounds of Namibia’s veterans of the liberation struggle, who engaged the enemy directly in battle at the frontlines during Namibia’s war of liberation from apartheid colonisation.

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A look at the value of biodiversity and the role of the media

Biodiversity is defined as the variety of living organisms found within a specified geographic region. The conservation of biodiversity on the other hand is about saving life on Earth in all its forms and keeping natural ecosystems functioning and healthy. Stated simply, the environment refers to the surroundings or space in which persons, animals and plants live or operate. 

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“Area of jurisdiction” remains a grey area

The closest perhaps that the Traditional Authorities Act of 2000 comes to “area of jurisdiction” and something that may be interpreted as perhaps meaning the “area of jurisdiction” of any traditional authority, is where and when the Act in Section 5 (b) (ii) refers to “the communal area inhabited by that community”. 

Our youth is at risk

The ever-growing misunderstanding between society, the youth and government need remedy before reaching crisis point. To a certain degree, both sides are impatient toward each other when dealing with various ways of tackling socio-economic challenges. 

Profiles of courage: Asser Kapere through time

During Namibia’s years of upheaval, Asser Kapere, affectionately known as A.K, featured prominently in different cutting-edge projects and this nimble footed, soft spoken comrade with the heart of a lion was among those children of the storm who bravely stood the test of time at the center of the storm. 

World teems with global security concerns

Twenty six years back I attended a Commonwealth Study Conference hosted by the Duke of Edinburg in Oxford, England. The conference pulled together representatives of all Commonwealth member countries to deliberate on how best to make the world a better place for all to live in.  The conference broke up in groups and I joined the group that visited Northern Ireland, the contested country, also known as Ulster by sections of the Irish community that forms that society. 

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Namibians, unite or fall further apart

In my humble and honest opinion, Namibia, a proud child of the international community and solidarity, is currently a politically and economically divided nation. And the longer we live in denial of this fact, the more we will continue to damage and destroy the full potential of this supposed to be great nation to the detrimental effect and impact of its innocent citizens. 

Fighting gender-based violence (GBV)

While in many societies women have achieved a great deal of equality and freedom to define who they are rather than be defined by the expectation of others, endemic patterns of oppression and repression continue to exist even within the same societies. 

Whither to indigenisation in Namibia

“The economic order of Namibia shall be based on the principles of a mixed economy with the objective of securing economic growth, prosperity and a life of human dignity for all Namibians,” reads article 98 of the Namibian Constitution on the Principles of Economic Order.

The purpose of the Church in society

Where is the church when millions of people choose to seek a way out of their conditions? Is there something that the church can offer to this problem? The problem of suicide in Namibia is spreading fast as statistics now show that there were 452 recorded suicidal deaths in 2017, and 131 suicidal deaths recorded between April and July 2018. This means that on average there is one suicidal death committed every day in Namibia, making it the fourth highest rated country in Africa for suicide (NSA)

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Dependency on state tenders has economic growth consequences

The Namibian government and its established entities have for far too long played a very significant role towards the economic financial stability of the country. This is through its procurement of goods and services from providers but has unfortunately in the process created a deep dependency syndrome, which going forward will be very difficult to cure. 

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The “devil-face” of Christianity and Roman-Dutch law on Olufuko

With the ongoing onslaught about the legal validity and the moral standing of Olufoko first and foremost as a customary practice, need serious public dialogue as well as sufficient intellectual clarity specifically to feed those who are inclined to believe that Africa is a haven of foreign legal systems and a place where religious doctrines are used as competent lens of human morality. Like other customs in the diversity of African 

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Who watches the watchdog?

The Windhoek Observer of Friday 05 October 2018 carried a front page report on the estate of revered struggle icon the Late Andimba Ya Toivo. The gist of the article was the distribution of the Late Veterans assets but took a rather awkward twist towards the end in mentioning that “politically connected individuals have managed to amass fortunes based on political patronage at the expense of ordinary Namibians”.

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Namibian sits on potential of victory against poverty

Namibia is a very unique African country. The country is truly a nation of contrast, of extreme natural beauty, diverse cultures and varied perspective. However, and for some reasons, the country is struggling to harness its diverse blessings to economically lift its people from poverty, destitution, hopelessness, greediness and social injustice.

Eiseb, Epukiro inhabitants must reject parochial egoism

“South African officials attempted to implement apartheid Bantustan policies in Hereroland by creating easily controlled chiefs or “traditional authorities. They attempted to achieve this by manipulating intra-Herero identity politics, promising water development to cooperative factions and denying it to the resistant majority.” 

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Becoming a knowledge-based, industrialised country

The black power activist and Muslim minister, Malcolm  X  once  said:  “Education  is  the  passport  to  the  future,  for  tomorrow  belongs  to those who prepare for it today”. Indeed without  quality  education,  including  strong  Research  and  Development  and  Innovation,  sustainable  development  is  not  possible.  

Namibia’s long-standing land issue remains unresolved

Thirty years of German settler colonialism in South West Africa – from 1884 to 1914 – paved the way for continued apartheid under South Africa. The resistance of the local communities against the invasion culminated in the first genocide of the 20th century among the Ovaherero, Nama and other groups. As main occupants of the eastern, central and southern regions of the country they were forced from their land into so-called native reserves.

Society is under siege but leaders are helpless

While the country has still been reeling from the dark cloud of the slaying of a nine-year-old pupil, the wholeness of her body yet to be recovered, and the perpetrator(s) of the heinous crime still at large, yet another grisly inhumanity has been inflicted upon another and one of her innocent members with the mutilation and rape of yet another minor.  

Namibia’s minerals belong to Namibians

The recent bombshell decision by the Minister of Mines and Energy, Mr. Tom Alweendo, to drop the local ownership empowerment criteria to apparently attract mining investors to grow the Namibian mining sector is a serious retrogressive set-back to say the least. 

A zoom into Tsau //Khaeb National Park (Sperrgebiet)

As a child born and raised in Lüderitz, I attended St. Pieters Church school in the old location now called Benguela. I can remember, since time immemorial, that the Lüderitz peri-urban areas had been out of bound for people on the grass-roots level, the Sperrgebiet. I remember our teachers telling us that they grew old without knowing the surroundings of the town that they grew so fond of.

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The role of urea in livestock nutrition

The   words   urea   (English),   “ureum”   (Afrikaans),   “oiriuma” (Otjiherero) are common to many  farmers  when  it  comes  to livestock lick supplementation. However, the use or role of urea is widely not well understood, apart from it being  labelled as a risk  to  livestock.  

Our road to Damascus

Saul’s experience on the road to Damascus can be mistaken for the classic story of repentance: the sinner whose sense of guilt opens himself to Jesus’ saving grace. But by his own light, and those of his community, Saul, the Jew from Tarsus, was doing no wrong in trying to suppress a descending movement within Judaism. It took Jesus to show him the error of his ways. 

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Ethical community activism: The case of Olupaka Combined School

In African cultures, the spirit of giving back to the community form the humanistic foundation of ethics and it is central in contemplating African morality. Ethics are intended to guide the conduct of people in society and therefore shape us to do what is right for the society not only by virtue of being good but also by being productive, which includes ploughing back into the societies we live in. 

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Eulogising Desie Natangwe Heita

A week ago, we have carried a heavy burden of grief on our hearts. Our souls have refused to be stilled. Our spirits have sunk under the unbearable weight of an unexpected shock. The silent tears of despair have watered our cheeks. Crying has not been enough to contain the pain we feel. 

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This is our ancestral land

As we recently concluded the second national land conference, I thought I should correct some wrong perceptions held by those championing the ancestral land debate. I believe that wrong perceptions are a result of miseducation of those making these wild ancestral land claims.

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Desie Heita is not dead

“Reserve me a page for my land feature. The coverage so far is simply vomit of what we are all watching and hearing on TV and radio. It lacks in-depth analysis of the issues being debated.”

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Land: Lessons Namibia can learn from Zimbabwe

There are many lessons that the Namibia land redistribution process can learn from the experiences of neighbours Zimbabwe.  An article by Crecey Kuyedzwa of Fin24 on a few lessons South Africa can learn from Zimbabwe in land redistribution captured my attention.  There are many other lessons to learn from Zimbabwe but I decided to discuss the few below.

Grade retention or automatic promotion – which way to go?

The pendulum had been swinging, the world over, between the two opposing academic promotion policies, that is, grade retention/repetition and automatic/ social promotion. Automatic/social promotion is the practice where learners are advanced from one grade to the next, at the end of the school year regardless of the educational attainment of these learners

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Bequeath to them nationalism and not tribalism

Our population is young. They are young with bright minds, full of energy, vigour and thirst for knowledge. They are students, they are workers, they are voters and the majority of them are unemployed. Our future can be hopeful and it must be hopeful. There is no choice of failure.

Heroes Day commemorations linger with deep reflections

On the 26th of August of each year, those who chased the struggle in the bush, those who buried the victims of Apartheid and fed the hungry victims inside the figurative belly of the beast, sit with a private tear on their face, reflecting on events that characterize the struggle of the people of the then South West Africa. 

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Taking stock of the 1991 land conference consensus resolutions

With the second national land conference about six weeks away, it seems appropriate to reflect on the major conclusions of the National Conference on Land Reform and the Land Question, dubbed the “First Land Conference”, held during June-July 1991. The fact that the conference decisions are referred to as consensus resolutions suggests that most of the decisions were arrived at as a result of compromise, in the spirit of give and take that prevailed at the Constituent Assembly two years prior.

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In memory of ‘stubborn optimist’ Kofi Annan

Kofi Annan often described himself as a ‘stubborn optimist’. Winston Churchill defined an optimist as one who “see the opportunity in every difficulty.” Kofi Annan was, indeed, an eternal optimist who always faced seemingly insuperable challenges with such optimism that in the end, would lead to a solution. Kofi – whose name means born on Friday and his middle name Atta means twin - had a twin sister, Efua, who died in 1990.

Repatriates from Botswana, are they not just mere pawns in the game of numbers?

It must be granted that Batswana and South Africans of Namibian descent are, historically and politically speaking, bona fide Namibian citizens. This is once the necessary legalities and/or political and diplomatic essentials among the respective three neighbouring countries have been completed, thus paving the way for the repatriation, of those who would voluntarily wish to return to their motherland, or fatherland.

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Katjavivi responds to the Open Letter by Dr Shejavali

Dr Abisai Shejavali wrote an Open Letter to me as the Speaker of the National Assembly. This letter was published in the New Era newspaper of 27 July 2018. It covered a broad array of issues, several of which do not necessarily fall under the mandate of Parliament. I now hereby take the opportunity to reply to my good friend’s Open Letter, by identifying the key issues he raised as follows.

Obey thy teacher’s commandments

I have never quite understood why rich kids often talk back to teachers. I mean, for us who grew up in the hood - a teacher’s wish was your command! You asked no questions, offered no comments - you just got your lazy behind up and do whatever the heck he/she asked you to. That is, of course, if you knew what’s good for you.

Outlook on contested realisation of development in Namibia

From the outset, one has to understand what this means multifaceted, difficult and contested word, ‘development’. The Society for International Development defines development as a process that creates growth, progress, and positive change to the physical, economic, environmental, and social life of citizens. The purpose of development is a rise in the level and quality of life of the people, employment opportunities without damaging the resources of the environment.

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The secessionists in the Zambezi lack an internalised foe

This article is meant to present my contribution to the prickly debate that is underway on Facebook, especially among the residents of the Zambezi Region. It is my desire to demonstrate the intellectual bankruptcy embedded in the contributions made by the sympathisers of the secessionists, as these individuals seem to be motivated by nothing else but family loyalism, and utter indiscretion. It is quite irritating when the residents of this region are again and again drawn back to the debate of an issue that exists in the minds of individuals who failed in their pursuit of different careers. These individuals have used their failure, and the bad experience associated with it, to justify the secession of the Zambezi Region from Namibia. It is so sad that these individuals have won sympathisers among innocent fellows who have failed to rise above imaginary tribal boundaries either due to sheer absurdity, or little education.

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The issue of ancestral land – can it be discussed at land conference?

The highly controversial, contentious and sensitive issue, which might divide the Namibian people, is the issue of the land taken from those who were forced to withdraw from the lands on which they pastured their animals to let the colonialists take over and pasture their animals on those lands. Between 1893 and 1903 the Germans went on a rampage of expropriating land and animals from specific groups of people. This process became even worse when German colonial forces decided to exterminate the Ovaherero and Nama people during 1904-1908. The South African regime, which took over the country from the Germans, continued with the land expropriation of some of the groups of this country, and victims of this land expropriation are known and they were the people who owned the land in the South and Central parts of the country. The descendants of those people are the ones who are demanding restoration of ancestral land rights today.